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Source: "Neurology of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders" (left) and "Mapping the Mind" (right), both edited

Cingulate gyrus, Gyrus cinguli


Detection of errors, risk and conflict management, response inhibition, cognitive control, adaptation, Theory of Mind ToM (amongst others)

Important part of the Limbic System

Grief S; Pain, disgust (cognitive recognition - even by just observing scenes - and processing) S


Posterior Cingulate Cortex


(Episodic S) memory (caudal) S, Speech comprehension and production (due to declarative memory functions during communication) S (strong interactions with medial temporal cortex) S

Theory of Mind ToM S

Pain (rostral) S

Disgust (cognitive recognition - even during mere observation of scenes - and processing) S

Recognition of both personally familiar objects and places S, dPCC: Orientation in space, vPCC: Processing of information and objects that are relevant for the self; introspection S


Early Alzheimer's Disease (retrosplenial/ posterior) S,
Anxiety Disorders S,
Alexithymia S,
Schizophrenia S (verbal memory) S,
Anorexia Nervosa S,
Addiction (Cocaine) S;
Autism S

Anterior Cingulate Cortex


Reaction to committed errors S, 'Error detection', Error prediction (error likelihood and magnitude of the consequences) S

Risk prediction, cognitive control, emotion regulation S, conflict monitoring, adjustments in behavior S, above all conflict detection between simultaneously active, competing representations S, minimization of distractions S

Conflict -> acts as teaching signal for avoidance learning -> will bias behavioral decision making toward cognitively efficient tasks and strategies S

Task and response conflict and anticipation S; the conflict signal detected by the ACC is transmitted to other brain regions, such as the DLPFC, to increase the level of cognitive control S

Information transfer: to the auditory association cortices, brain stem vocalization, and autonomic structures, in pathways that may mediate emotional communication and autonomic activation in emotional arousal S

Problem solving, concentration upon a task

Response inhibition S, self-regulation, emotion regulation S

Fear (rACC, gating the efficiency of amygdala-dependent auditory fear conditioning learning) S, S; pain S, S

Dwelling on one's own thoughts and notions (inner life), motivation

Important part of the reward system: anticipation of rewards, (reinforcement-related) decision making S, e.g. regarding how much effort to invest for rewards S, action evaluation, decision making regarding reward and punishment S, learning through consequences, avoidance learning S, behavioral adaptation after delivered punishments S

Anterior Cingulate Cortex (functions continued)

Craving (Nicotine) S

Empathy (with pain) S

Theory of Mind ToM (bilateral) S

Autonomic functions: modulation of blood pressure and heart rate amongst others

* Dorsal=cognitive S,
cognitive processing of stimuli, behavioral control S, attention, working memory, error detection, conflict monitoring S, response selection, anticipation of incoming information S, increasing attention to relevant stimuli S

* Ventral=affective S,
attention on the internal emotional and motivational status, regulation of autonomic responses S

* Anterior=executive

* Posterior=evaluative

* Rostral: projection of positive future events, optimism S, detecting response conflict caused by irrelevant stimuli S


Borderline PD S, S,
PTSD S, S (rostral),
Schizophrenia S, S, S,
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder S, S, S, S, Autism S,
Depression (BA 25, S, S, S, S),
Anorexia Nervosa S,
Bipolar Disorder S, S,
Addiction (Cocaine, rostral) S,
Addiction (Nicotine, Dopamine) S

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